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Številka 1/2016 ~ Issue 1/2016



Mojca Leskovec: Jezikoslovni pogled na trpnik v zgodovini slovenskega jezika. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 3–13.
Prispevek raziskuje rabo trpnika v slovenščini, ki jo zaznamuje dolgoletna tradicija odklanjanja. Pričela se je z Vodnikom in Šmigocem, stopnjevala pa z Metelkom, Janežičem in prvo Breznikovo slovnico. Zavračanje trpnika je bilo z zadnjo Breznikovo slovnico in slovnicami treh avtorjev nato prekinjeno, vsaj delno pa slovničarsko tradicijo ogibanja trpniku nadaljuje sodobna slovenska slovnica s pripombo, da ga tudi v strokovnih, poljudnih in znanstvenih besedilih ni dobro preveč uporabljati. Analiza slovnic, pravopisov in jezikoslovnih razprav je pri vprašanju trpnika nakazala štiri obdobja obravnave v zgodovini slovenskega jezika, pregled učbenikov in jezikovnih kotičkov ter analiza časopisnih besedil pa sta pokazala, da je bila v vsakem od teh obdobij posredovana predpisana norma in je šla raba v korak z njo.
Ključne besede: trpnik, slovenska slovnica, zgodovina slovenskega jezika, funkcijski pogled na jezik

Mojca Leskovec: A Linguistic View of the Passive Voice in the History of the Slovenian Language. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 3–13.
The article explores the use of the passive voice in the Slovenian language, which is characterised by a longstanding tradition of rejection. This began with Vodnik and Šmigoc and escalated with Metelko, Janežič and the first grammar book by Breznik. The rejection of the passive voice subsequently ceased in Breznik’s last grammar book and in grammar books by the Three authors, but it continued at least partially in the contemporary Slovenian grammar book, which states that in technical, popular and scientific texts it is not good to use the passive voice too often. Concerning the question of the passive voice, an analysis of grammar and orthography books as well as linguistic discussions indicated four periods of treatment in the history of the Slovenian language. An examination of textbooks and language discussion forums and an analysis of newspaper texts showed that in each of these periods the prescribed norm was passed to users and applied in practice.
Keywords: passive voice, Slovenian grammar, history of the Slovenian language, functional view of language

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2016|1|3–13



Sonja Čokl in Valentin Bucik: Razvijanje novih meril za ocenjevanje maturitetnih esejev pri splošni maturi iz slovenščine. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 15–34.
Predstavljamo razvoj merjenja in ocenjevanja kakovosti in količine znanja pri maturitetnih esejih iz slovenščine pri splošni maturi. Nova merila so primerjana z obstoječimi. Temeljijo na ključnih zmožnostih za vseživljenjsko učenje, ocenjevanje pa na 15-stopenjski taksonomsko razdelani ocenjevalni lestvici. S tem orodjem smo ocenili znanje v ustreznem številu napisanih esejev s poskusne mature v šolskem letu 2014/2015. Ocena dobro (3) je za razred ocene višja, kot bi jo sicer dobil esej s sedanjim načinom ocenjevanja. Predlagani novi način presega pomanjkljivosti, kot so neustrezno razmerje med deležema ocene za vsebino oz. jezik, preobsežna 50-stopenjska ocenjevalna lestvica, neutemeljeno določanje razreda ocene, nezanesljivo ponovno ocenjevanje esejev, neutemeljena razpršenost pozitivnih ocen, odštevanje enakega števila točk za neenako jezikovno znanje in podobno. Prednost novih meril je v enostavni uporabi, taksonomsko utemeljenih razlikah v znanju ter v uporabi meril, ki jih sedanji način ocenjevanja, utemeljen na občutku ocenjevalcev, ne pozna.
Ključne besede: merjenje, ocenjevanje, slovenščina, splošna matura, eseji, ključne kompetence za vseživljenjsko učenje, taksonomija, zanesljivost, pravičnost

Sonja Čokl in Valentin Bucik: The Development of a New Model for the Assessment of Essays in Matura Exams for Slovenian as a Mother Tongue. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 15–34.
We present a new model for assessing and grading the quality and quantity of knowledge in the essay part of the written exam for one of the most important subjects in the Slovenian general Matura examination: Slovenian as a mother tongue. The model is compared with the current procedure of assessing and grading. The proposed assessment rules are based on key competencies of lifelong learning, while grading is based on a 15-point taxonomically justified grading scale. Using this tool, we assessed the knowledge in an adequate number of selected finished exams in the pre-test examination in the 2014/2015 school year. The grade ‘good’ (3) in the new model is one category higher than it is in the existing grading system. The new model addresses the shortcomings of the present marking system, such as the unsuitable ratio between the ‘content’ and ‘language’ parts of the final grade, the over-extensive 50-point marking scale, the groundless determination of the grading class, the unreliable reassessment of essays, the unfounded dispersion of positive grades, etc. The proposed assessment and the grading model have several advantages: they are simple to use, they operate with taxonomically grounded differences in knowledge, and they use qualitative rules that are absent in the current assessment system, which is noticeably based on the subjective sense and consideration of assessors.
Keywords: assessment, grading, Slovenian, general Matura, essays, key competencies of lifelong learning, taxonomy, reliability, fairness

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2016|1|15–34



Dragica Haramija in Janja Batič: Celostno branje slikanic kot izhodišče za branje odraslih z motnjami v duševnem razvoju. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 35–45.
V članku povezujemo teorijo slikanic ter načine njihovega celostnega branja pri skupinah odraslih s težavami pri branju ali razumevanju prebranega. Za slikanico kot posebno obliko knjige je pomembno védenje, da ima tri temeljne sestavine: besedilo, ilustracijo in vsebinsko-oblikovni odnos med besedilom in ilustracijo (interakcija). Slikanica pripoveduje zgodbo z dvema jezikoma in ima omejen obseg. Med primeri kakovostnih slikanic predstavljamo takšne, ki so po svoji vsebini primerne (tudi) za odraslega bralca in torej sodijo med naslovniško odprte slikanice. Odrasli bralec z motnjami v duševnem razvoju ob celostnem branju slikanice ter razbiranju pomenov obeh sporočanjskih kodov, lažje razume vsebino, kar je temeljno načelo lahkega branja.
Ključne besede: slikanica, celostno branje, lahko branje, naslovniška odprtost

Dragica Haramija in Janja Batič: Integrated Picture Book Reading as a Starting Point for Reading by Mentally Challenged Adults . Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 35–45.
This article brings together the theory of picture books and the methods of integrated reading of picture books by groups of adults with reading or understanding difficulties. When considering a picture book, which is a particular book format in itself, one needs to understand that it comprises three key ingredients: text, illustration and visual-verbal interaction. A picture book tells a story in two languages and is limited in length. The examples of quality picture books showcased here include picture books that are (also) appropriate for adults, which means they have a wider age span and range of reading levels. Through integrated reading of a picture book, deciphering both communication codes, adult readers with mental handicaps find it easier to understand the content of a book, which is the basic principle of light reading.
Keywords: picture book, integrated reading, light reading, wider age span and range of reading levels

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2016|1|35–45



Vita Žerjal Pavlin: Slovenske pesmi o veliki vojni iz dveh tematskih izborov. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 47–59.
Zanimiv pogled na slovensko pesniško ustvarjanje, spodbujeno s prvo svetovno vojno, omogočata dva tematska izbora. Antologijo Oblaki so rudeči, ki je izšla ob sedemdesetletnici konca vojne leta 1988, je uredil Janez Povše. Leta 2014 ob stoletnici začetka t. i. velike vojne pa je Marjeta Žebovec izdala antologijo V vojni pokrajini. Objavljene pesmi v obeh izborih kljub vojni cenzuri in pritiskom avstrijske oblasti nad intelektualci prinašajo različne vojne motive in poglede na vojno, od borbeno spodbudnih, domoljubnih, celo dinastičnih do izrazito kritičnih. Izrekajo jih v vojno različno vpleteni izpovedovalci, pogosta so tudi dialoška soočenja pogledov ali pa pesmi prinašajo širši razgled na vojne usode ljudi. Zaradi precejšnjih generacijskih razlik med pesniki je razumljiva tudi slogovna raznovrstnost pesmi: ob novoromantičnem slogu in ekspresionističnih ali celo futurističnih novostih uporabljajo avtorji tudi bolj tradicionalen izraz slovenske poezije 19. stoletja.
Ključne besede: vojna poezija, vojni motivi, prva svetovna vojna, Marjeta Žebovec, Janez Povše

Vita Žerjal Pavlin: Slovenian Poems about the Great War from Two Thematic Collections. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 47–59.
The two thematic collections examined offer an interesting overview of Slovenian Poetry inspired by World War I. Clouds are Red (Oblaki so rudeči) published in 1988, seventy years after the end of the war, is a collection of poems edited by Janez Povše. Landscape of War (V vojni pokrajini) was published in 2014 by Marjeta Žebovec on the occasion of the Great War Centenary. Poems from both collections highlight various war motifs and contemplations, ranging from combat, patriotism and even dynasties, to explicit earnestness, and thus oppose the censorship and pressure exerted over Slovenian intellectuals by the Austrian authorities. Verses are uttered by first-person speakers who had engaged in war in different ways. There are recurrent ideological confrontations, as well as insights into peoples’ destinies affected by war. Due to the considerable age differences between the authors of the poems, we also notice a range of poetic styles: neo-romantic, expressionist and even futuristic, as well as more traditional poetic expressions typical of 19th century Slovenian Poetry.
Keywords: war poetry, war motifs, World War I, Marjeta Žabovec, Janez Povše

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2016|1|47–59



Janja Vollmaier Lubej: Esejizmi v romanu Vinka Ošlaka. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 61–75.
Prispevek se ukvarja z esejizmi v literarnem delu Vinka Ošlaka. Predstavljen je preplet njegove esejistične misli v treh romanih, avtobiografskem Človeka nikar ter družbenokritičnima Hagar in Obletnica mature. Analizirani bosta vloga in pomen esejizmov oz. esejističnih eksurzov v omenjenih literarnih delih.
Ključne besede: Vinko Ošlak, sodobni slovenski roman, esejizem, esejistični ekskurz, jezik, narod, krščanstvo, umetnost

Janja Vollmaier Lubej: Essayism in the Literary Work of Vinko Ošlak. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 61–75.
The present contribution examines essayism in the literary work of Vinko Ošlak. It presents the entwined essayistic thoughts in his three novels, in the autobiographical novel Človeka nikar and in the socially critical novels Hagar and Obletnica mature. The role and meaning of essayistic elements and essayistic excursions in the aforementioned literary works is analysed.
Keywords: Vinko Ošlak, contemporary Slovenian novel, essayism, essayistic excursion, language, nation, Christianity, art

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2016|1|61–75



Aljoša Harlamov: Podobe živali v poeziji Daneta Zajca: hibridizacija ter razpad subjekta in njegovega jezika. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 77–87.
Podobe živali v poeziji Daneta Zajca lahko s pomočjo naslonitve na »živalske študije« razdelimo v dve skupini: na tiste, pri katerih (lirski) subjekt vzdržuje hierarhično dualistično razmerje do živali, tj. dediščino novoveškega racionalnega subjekta, ter na tiste, kjer prihaja do preseganja antropocentrične perspektive in hibridizacije subjekta. Slednja predpostavlja prepustnost človeških in živalskih kategorij in s tem prepustnost subjekta, kar nazadnje rezultira v njegovem razpadu. Razpad subjekta se na jezikovni ravni kaže v doslednejši rabi modernističnih pesniških postopkov.
Ključne besede: Dane Zajc, žival, živalske študije, subjekt, modernizem

Aljoša Harlamov: Animal Depictions in the Poetry of Dane Zajc: Hybridisation and the Disintegration of the Subject and Its Language. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 77–87.
Applying the theoretical framework of animal studies, animal depictions in the poetry of Dane Zajc can be divided into two groups. In the first are poems in which the (lyrical) subject maintains a hierarchical dualistic relationship towards the animal, which is a legacy of the modern rational subject; in the second are poems in which the (lyrical) subject exceeds the anthropocentric perspective and the hybridisation of the subject begins. The latter presupposes a permeability of human and animal categories, and with it the permeability of the subject, effectively resulting in its disintegration and a more consistent use of modernist poetic devices.
Keywords: Dane Zajc, animal, animal studies, subject, modernism

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2016|1|77–87



Alojzija Zupan Sosič: Literarna oseba v sodobnem slovenskem romanu. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 89–100.
Za določitev literarne osebe je bistvena njena dvojna identiteta; na eni strani iluzija posnemanja »osebe«, na drugi strani pa ideja o literarni konstrukciji, medtem ko je njen prikaz odvisen od stopnje mimetičnosti in literarne norme. Ta dvojnost me je pri raziskavi literarne osebe v sodobnem slovenskem romanu zadnjih let (1990–2015) usmerila k povezovanju znotrajbesedilne in zunajbesedilne resničnosti. Tako sem spremembe romaneskne osebe navezala na tri značilnosti romaneskne poetike na prelomu stoletja, med katerimi sta vnesli v karakterizacijo največ inovativnosti prevlada t. i. male zgodbe in nova emocionalnost. Obe sta zaznamovali like z naslednjimi značilnostmi: večji delež protagonistk, sodobne podobe ženskosti in moškosti, ujete v spolne stereotipe in njihovo dekonstrukcijo, spreminjanje spolnih vlog, prevpraševanje tradicionalnih družinskih vezi, več pozornosti »marginalnim« spolom in otroški perspektivi ter aktivizem v izrednih razmerah.
Ključne besede: literarna oseba, sodobni slovenski roman, dvojna identiteta, novosti v karakterizaciji

Alojzija Zupan Sosič: The Literary Character in the Contemporary Slovenian Novel. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 89–100.
The double identity of character is very important for the definition of character; on the one hand, there is an “illusion” of mimesis, while, on the other, there is the idea of literary construction. This double identity has led research of the contemporary Slovenian novel to the connection of intraliterary and extraliterary reality. The dominance of the “small story” and “new emotionality” has brought many innovations to the Slovenian novel (1990–2015) in terms of characterisation: more female characters, contemporary male and female images, modification of gender stereotypes and gender roles, questioning of the traditional family, more space for gender minorities, the child’s point of view, and activity in emergency.
Keywords: character, the contemporary Slovenian novel, double identity, innovations in characterisation

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2016|1|89–100



Igor Žunkovič: Ali je nevroznanost rešila humanistiko? Revizija razmerja med nevroznanostjo in literarno vedo pet let kasneje. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 101–112.
Patricia Cohen je že leta 2010 v svojem odmevnem članku v The New York Timesu izrazila misel, da prihodnost humanistike leži v nevroznanosti. Napredek tehnik merjenja možganske aktivnosti tudi literarni vedi omogoča doslej neslutene možnosti raziskovanja. A razmerje med nevroznanostjo in literarno vedo ni preprosto in enoznačno. Po petih letih od tega znamenitega razglasa Patricie Cohen je zato potrebna revizija možnosti nevroznanstvenega proučevanja literature. Pričujoči članek analizira razmerje med nevroznanstvenimi in drugimi znanstvenimi pristopi k literaturi in ugotavlja, kakšne nevroznanstvene raziskave literature so bile doslej izvedene ter kakšne so potencialne možnosti uporabe nevroznanstvenih metod za proučevanje literarne recepcije. S tem po eni strani zrelativiziramo navdušenje nekaterih literarnih teoretikov nad nevroznanostjo, po drugi strani pa odpiramo perspektive uspešnega interdisciplinarnega sodelovanja literarne vede in nevroznanosti.
Ključne besede: nevroznanost, literarna recepcija, nevrofenomenologija, utelešenost izkustva, kognitivna znanost

Igor Žunkovič: Has Neuroscience Saved the Humanities? A Review of the Relationship Between Neuroscience and Literary Studies Five Years Later. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 101–112.
In her widely cited article, published by The New York Times in 2010, Patricia Cohen proposed the notion of the neuroscientific future of the humanities. The development of neurometric techniques opened a new and unexpected horizon of literary research, especially with regard to new opportunities for literary response studies. Five years later, there is a need to revise these new approaches. This article examines neuroscientific approaches to literature, analysing the kind of neuroscientific research that has been conducted so far and exploring other research opportunities that emerge within the realm of neuroscientific methodology. Thus we relativise the claim that neuroscience is the saviour of humanities and explore perspectives of the relationship between neuroscience and literature.
Keywords: neuroscience, literary reception, neurophenomenology, embodied experience, cognitive science

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2016|1|101–112



Igor Saksida: Jonatanov let z drugimi, celo z ljudmi. Nekaj misli o knjigi Dragice Haramija Vloga živali v mladinski književnosti. Murska Sobota: Franc-Franc, 2015.. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 113–116.

Igor Saksida: Jonathan’s Flight with Others, even with People. Some Thoughts about the Book The Role of Animals in Youth Literature by Dragica Haramija. Murska Sobota: Franc-Franc, 2015.. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2016. 113–116.

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2016|1|113–116